I was recently at a cocktail reception when a young couple asked me about their “iPhone will”. The couple had recently taken their first trip out of the province without their young child and had intended to prepare a will in advance. However, life got in the way, and it was only when they were sitting in the airport that they remembered they had forgotten to prepare a will. Worried about their lack of succession planning, they pulled out their iPhone and drafted a basic document setting out their desires for their estate should anything happen on their trip.
Unfortunately for this young couple, this attempt at drafting a will was likely ineffective. The formalities of a valid will are set out in the Succession Law Reform Act, R.S.O. 1990 c. S.26. For a formal will to be valid, it must be in writing (s.3). Additionally, a will is not valid unless: (i) it is signed by the testator at the end of the document (or their representative); (ii) it is signed in the presence of two witnesses and (iii) the witnesses sign the will in the presence of the testator (s.4(1)).
Certain of these formalities are not necessary where a testator makes a “holograph will”. A holograph will is valid if it is made wholly by the testator’s handwriting and signature without formality and without the presence or signature of a witness (s.6). However, in this case the couple was unable to sign the will (even digitally) due to the limitations of the phone’s program.
We are not aware of any cases that have considered whether a digital signature can satisfy the signature requirements of the Succession Law Reform Act or whether digital “handwriting” can satisfy the holograph will requirements. It will be interesting to see what a Court will decide in a situation where a testator attempts to sign a will digitally.
In conclusion, while it would have been effective for this couple to quickly write (and sign) a holographic will on a napkin, their attempts were foiled by the limitations of their iPhone. While it will be necessary for the Courts of Canada to adapt to technological advancements, for now this is an area where pen and paper remains the safe choice.
Thank you for reading.